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Organisms have preferred environments outside of which they are at a deadly disadvantage. If only 15764 animals were aboard the Ark (see section 3), one animal must have been loaded every 38 seconds, without letup. The sediments are so fine that each layer would have required over a month to settle. Stratigraphic sections showing a dozen or more mature forests layered atop each other--all with upright trunks, in-place roots, and well-developed soil--appear in many locations. They can't survive there, at least not for long without special care. The Green River formation in Wyoming contains 20,000,000 annual layers, or varves, identical to those being laid down today in certain lakes. Here's how the points discussed above affect his analysis. Sedimentary mountains such as the Sierras and Andes rose after the Flood by isostatic rebound. Proceedings of the second international conference on creationism, vol. The stretched pebble conglomerate in Death Valley National Monument (Wildrose Canyon Rd., 15 mi. 190), for example, contains streambed pebbles metamorphosed to quartzite and stretched to 3 or more times their original length. Table 1 shows Woodmorappe's analysis and some additional calculations. Page numbers refer to Woodmorappe, 1996, from which the figures in the row are taken. [Baumgardner, 1990a; Austin et al., 1994] New ocean basins. Catastrophic plate tectonics: a global flood model of earth history. In the beginning: compelling evidence for creation and the Flood. Plastically deformed stone is also common around salt diapirs [Jackson et al, 1990]. Standard theory is that they were laid down before Earth's atmosphere contained much oxygen. According to the Bible, Noah took samples of all animals alive at the time of the Flood. For thousands of plant species (perhaps even most plants), there is at least one animal that eats only that one kind of plant. Aside from losing its atmosphere, Earth can only get rid of heat by radiating it to space, and it can't radiate significantly more heat than it gets from the sun unless it is a great deal hotter than it is now.

Most extinctions are caused by destroying the organisms' preferred environments. Getting all the animals aboard the Ark presents logistical problems which, while not impossible, are highly impractical. Since there were likely more animals to load, the time pressures would have been even worse. However, on the ark "kind" must have meant something closer to species for three reasons: What kinds were aboard the ark? One example, the Joggins section along the Bay of Fundy, shows a continuous section 2750 meters thick (along a 48-km sea cliff) with multiple in-place forests, some separated by hundreds of feet of strata, some even showing evidence of forest fires. For other examples, see Dawson, 1868; Cristie & Mc Millan, 1991; Gastaldo, 1990; Yuretich, 1994.] Creationists point to logs sinking in a lake below Mt. Helens as an example of how a flood can deposit vertical trunks, but deposition by flood fails to explain the roots, the soil, the layering, and other features found in such places. If the geologic record was deposited in a year, then the events it records must also have occurred within a year. In addition, he determines that about 10% of the ark was needed for food (compacted to take as little space as possible) and 9.4% for water (assuming no evaporation or wastage). (Imagine if you had to stay in an area the size of a closet for a year.) How were several thousand diverse kinds of animals exercised regularly? How did a crew of eight manage a menagerie larger and more diverse than that found in zoos requiring many times that many employees? The water would be steam by the time it reached the surface of the earth. John Baumgardner created the runaway subduction model, which proposes that the pre-Flood lithosphere (ocean floor), being denser than the underlying mantle, began sinking. 119-144 In: Poldervaart, A., ed., Crust of the Earth, Geological Society of America Special Paper 62, Waverly Press, MD. Tree ring records go back more than 10,000 years, with no evidence of a catastrophe during that time. These layers can occur more or less at random times in the geological history, and have characteristic fossils on either side. At least 25% of the space would have been needed for corridors and bracing. Woodmorappe claims that eight people could care for 16000 animals, but he makes many unrealistic and invalid assumptions. The heat released in the process decreased the viscosity of the mantle, so the process accelerated catastrophically. Patterns of ocean circulation over the continents during Noah's Flood. Patterns and processes of vertebrate evolution, Cambridge University Press. Miracles in, creationism out: "The geophysics of God". [Becker & Kromer, 1993; Becker et al, 1991; Stuiver et al, 1986] Alley, R. Therefore, if the fossils were themselves laid down during a catastrophic flood, there are, it seems, only two choices: (1) the salt layers were themselves laid down at the same time, during the heavy rains that began the flooding, or (2) the salt is a later intrusion. New genera of dinosaurs have been discovered at a nearly constant rate for more than a century, and there's no indication that the rate of discovery will fall off in the near future. Woodmorappe gets his animals to fit only by taking juvenile pairs of everything weighing more than 22 lbs. However, it is more likely that Noah would have brought adults aboard: The last point does not apply to all animals. Aphids, in fact, are physically incapable of sucking from wilted leaves. The large quantities of food aboard would have invited infestations of any of hundreds of stored product pests (especially since all of those pests would have been aboard), and the humidity one would expect aboard the Ark would have provided an ideal environment for molds. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., Philadelphia PA. If not, how do you explain the well-ordered sequence of fossils in the deposits? al., Carboniferous Coastal Environments and Paleocommunities of the Mary Lee Coal Zone, Marion and Walker Counties, Alabama. However, the animals don't need parental care tend to be animals that mature quickly, and thus would be close to adult size after a year of growth anyway. The Bible says either seven or fourteen (it's ambiguous) of each kind of clean animal was aboard. How did Noah keep pests from consuming most of the food? The ark would need to be well ventilated to disperse the heat, humidity, and waste products (including methane, carbon dioxide, and ammonia) from the many thousands of animals which were crowded aboard. 37-42) interprets Genesis to mean there was an 18-inch opening all around the top, and says that this, with slight breezes, would have been enough to provide adequate ventilation. Institute for Creation Research, Santee, California. Where did the Flood water come from, and where did it go? A global flood would have produce evidence contrary to the evidence we see. For example, why weren't the Sierra Nevadas eroded as much as the Appalachians during the Flood? Roughly 1.5 x 10 grams of calcium carbonate are deposited on the ocean floor each year. Guidebook for the Field Trip VI, Alabama Geological Survey, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

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(The summit of Everest is composed of deep-marine limestone, with fossils of ocean-bottom dwelling crinoids [Gansser, 1964].) If these were formed during the Flood, how did they reach their present height, and when were the valleys between them eroded away?

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