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Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or spread from the injection site, causing paralysis of unintended muscles.Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles.Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from eating improperly-canned foods in which C. However, the toxin can also be introduced through an infected wound.In infants, the bacteria can sometimes grow in the intestines and produce botulinum toxin within the intestine and can cause a condition known as floppy baby syndrome.Botulinum toxins have been used off-label for several pediatric conditions, including infantile esotropia.
Muscles weakened by toxin injection recover from paralysis after several months, so it might seem that injection would then need to be repeated.The FDA approves which medical conditions the drug manufacturer may sell the drug for.However, those approved by the FDA to prescribe these drugs may freely prescribe them for any condition they wish, called off-label use.It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis.Infection with the bacterium causes the disease botulism.
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Two preparations of botulinum antitoxins are available for treatment of botulism.