Dating letters paul
What are Paul's most important contributions to Christian theology?One is justification by faith, the concept that humans are saved from sin by believing in Jesus.In other letters, where Paul is in prison, he says so or alludes to it multiple times, so this fact alone tends to date 1 Timothy prior to Paul's imprisonment in Caesarea in 57 A. Paul says he urged Timothy to stay at Ephesus while he went to Macedonia (1 Tim 1:3).These are events from Paul's third missionary journey (Acts 20:1).Few liberal scholars believe Paul wrote 1 & 2 Timothy, Ephesians, and Titus.There is no consensus on who wrote Colossians and 2 Thessalonians.
This may have been due to an unfavorable first legal hearing (2 Tim ) occurring in between the earlier prison letters and this one.However, the analysis here separates them by a considerable time, with 2 Timothy near the end of Paul's life and 1 Timothy much earlier.There is no hint in 1 Timothy that Paul is in prison.Eventually, buying and selling of indulgences became corrupted.Luther's attacks on "works" were in large part motivated by his opposition to this corrupt system.
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Arguments are still advanced (notably by Joly 1979) that call into question the authenticity of these documents, but the researches of Zahn (1873) and Lightfoot (1885, 1889) and their followers continue to dominate the scholarship.